What are anabolic androgenic steroids?The word, steroid, has different meanings to different people. For some people, steroids are medicines they use to deal with acute conditions like arthritis, while others use it for enhancing muscle growth and performance. Steroids are most commonly linked to athletes, who are known to take them for boosting their energy levels and stamina, thereby enhancing their performance. The anabolic steroids are derived from, steroid, is derived from two Greek words - "Stere", which means solid, and "Eidos", which means a three-dimensional form. Anabolic steroids are derived from, they form the word, Stereoiedes, which means a solid organic compound. When translated into English, Stereoiedes becomes Steroid.
Introduction | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Increasing muscle mass and strength, decreasing recovery time after injury. Testosterone is partially responsible for the developmental changes that occur during puberty and adolescence and is also involved in controlling the build-up and breakdown of the main biochemical components of all tissues, including muscle.
Because testosterone affects muscle growth, raising its levels in the blood can help athletes increase muscle size and strength, along with some other benefits such as improved endurance. Anabolic steroids can be taken in tablet form or injected directly in to the muscle.
However, the androgenic masculinising side-effects—such as increased body hair and a deepening of the voice—are not always desirable, particularly in women. To counteract these side-effects, scientists developed steroids that retain their anabolic effects but have a lower androgenic effect.
Significant health risks have been associated with the abuse of anabolic steroids. Some of the effects are minor or only last while the drug is being taken; others are more serious and long-term. For example, anabolic steroids can cause high blood pressure, acne, abnormalities in liver function, alterations in the menstrual cycle in women, decline in sperm production, impotence and gynaecomastia growth of breasts in men, kidney failure and heart disease.
They can also make both men and women more irritable, potentially leading to mood swings. Testing for anabolic steroids has come a long way since the s, when basic radioimmunoassay techniques were used. Today, anti-doping labs use a range of complex techniques and technology to distinguish between testosterone produced naturally by the body endogenous and that which is a result of synthetic compounds exogenous. Continuing advancements in the detection of steroids and stimulants are currently being developed.
The new technique, named Paired Ion Electrospray Ionisation PIESI , makes traces of steroids or amphetamines more visible to current detection equipment by introducing a chemical agent that effectively binds itself to the traces, right down to the parts per trillion. This process is not yet used by the World Anti-Doping Agency as a sanctioned test.
To develop reliable tests, researchers have to know what they are looking for. The introduction of the Athlete Biological Passport , which can identify the markers of drug use even if the drug itself is not detected, may go some way to helping curb the use of steroids in athletes. What are anabolic androgenic steroids? There are two types of anabolic steroids: Exogenous steroids are synthetically created versions of the testosterone hormone. These substances are not naturally produced by the body.
Endogenous steroids are naturally occurring substances in the human body that are involved with the metabolic pathways of testosterone. American sprinter Marion Jones pictured admitted to using tetrahydrogestrinone THG as well as other performance- and image-enhancing drugs , resulting in the disqualification of all her competitive results post-September