Drugs in sportA drug is a substance taken into the body that modifies or affects chemical reactions in the body. Some drugs are beneficial, while others are harmful. Stimulants and depressants affect the synapses between neurones in the nervous system: Some drugs anabilic illegal, or must only be prescribed by a doctor. Some prescription drugs anabolic steroids gcse misused and taken for recreational use, rather than for medical reasons. They become illegal under these circumstances. Bal tropicana dhaiti drugs are classified anabolic steroids gcse Class A to Class C.
A description of some of the different drugs that are banned in sport. The use of performance-enhancing drugs PEDs is currently one of the biggest issues in modern sport.
Athletes such as Lance Armstrong and Justin Gatlin both damaged the reputation and credibility of their respective sports.
Athletes may choose to use illegal PEDs for different reasons and with varying risks. Anabolic steroids - these illegal drugs have been widely used to cheat in sport over the past 50 years because they help the athlete to make rapid increases in strength and recovery from high intensity movements such as sprints.
Steroids are typically used as a training drug. However, steroids are thought to cause severe mood swings when used in large quantities and may cause heart disease in some people.
In males there is also the threat of testicular atrophy shrinking testicles and in females an increase in body and facial hair. Endurance athletes use these illegal supplements to significantly boost cardiovascular fitness. Until recently EPO has been very difficult to detect in tests and it is thought that hundreds of road cyclists avoided detection for EPO in the s. Blood doping - this involves removing blood and then re-transfusing it a few weeks later after the lost red blood cells have been replaced.
This method was infamously used by Lance Armstrong during the Tour de France. Cardiovascular fitness is enhanced in the short term as it leads to an increase in red blood cell count but there is a serious risk of infections, illness and increased potential for heart attack or blockage of a blood vessel as a result. Diuretics - these cause the body to produce more urine. Some athletes use diuretics to mask the presence of other drugs such as anabolic steroids.
The athletes who need to 'make a weight' such as a boxer or judo player may also be tempted to use a diuretic as it can cause rapid weight loss.
However the method is illegal and can lead to severe dehydration. Stimulants - substances such as caffeine can increase alertness and improve performance in games by reducing reaction time.
Endurance athletes also like to use caffeine as it helps to better transport fat in the blood and decrease the impact of pain.
However, caffeine can also cause diarrhoea and disrupt sleep patterns. Beta blockers - these help a performer to keep calm, slow down the heart rate, reduce muscle tension, blood pressure and the effects of adrenaline.
They also help to prevent the hands from shaking. This has the effect of helping performers in target sports such as archery as they improve fine control and precise movements. These drugs are illegal in sport. Narcotic analgesics - these are painkillers that are used to help an injured athlete continue to train and perform in big competitions despite their injury or allow an endurance athlete to tolerate a greater level of pain.
This can be dangerous for an athlete as their injury may worsen by continuing to perform. Disgraced cyclist Lance Armstrong, pictured in , won the Tour de France seven times from to In he was stripped of his titles and given a lifetime ban after it emerged that he used performance-enhancing drugs to achieve his success.