Anabolic steroidAnabolic steroidsalso known more properly as anabolic—androgenic steroids AAS are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone. They are anabolic and increase protein the anabolic steroids control act of 1990 resulted in cellsespecially in skeletal musclesthe anabolic steroids control act of 1990 resulted in also have varying degrees of androgenic and virilizing effects, including induction of the development and maintenance of masculine secondary sexual characteristics such as the growth of facial and body hair. Androgens or AAS are one of three types of sex hormone agoniststhe others being estrogens like estradiol and progestogens like progesterone. AAS were synthesized in the s, and are now used therapeutically in medicine to stimulate muscle growth and appetiteinduce male puberty and treat chronic wasting conditions, fesulted as cancer and AIDS. The American College of Sports Medicine acknowledges that AAS, in the presence of adequate diet, can contribute to increases in steroid pulse therapy multiple sclerosis weightoften as lean mass increases and that the gains in muscular strength achieved through high-intensity exercise and proper diet can be anabopic increased by the use of AAS in some individuals.
Anabolic steroid - Wikipedia
Records of psychoactive drug use in athletic competitions date back to A. Neolithic times from the evidence of cave paintings B. By , athletes had experimented with the effects of A. In , a Welsh cyclist died while competing in a cross-country race due to ingestion of a combination of heroin and cocaine called a A. The first use of anabolic steroids was in the treatment of A. Anabolic steroid drugs are patterned after A.
Any substance that enhances the performance of some task is called A. Androgenic literally means A. Anabolic literally means A. Anabolic-androgenic steroids will have androgenic effects due to A. The aim of ergogenic steroids is to A. Anabolic-androgenic steroids are all patterned after the molecule of A.
Upward-changing is to anabolic as downward-changing is to A. Catabolic steroids tend to A. Available anabolic steroids are administered A.
Eastern European women athletes in the s and s were frequently accused of being A. From to , official programs existed for administering anabolic steroids to competitive swimmers in what country? A specific phrase was inserted into the Olympic Oath "committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs" A.
Anabolic steroid use among collegiate athletes began as early as A. One of the events of that made that year a turning point in the history of steroids was A. Ben Johnson was a world-class sprinter from A. The results of a major study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed A. According to the text, a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association reported that A. An explanation as to why drug testing in MLB has failed to eliminate the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as human growth hormone is because A.
Which of the following athletic organizations does NOT conduct testing for steroids? Major League Baseball B. National Football League C. National Hockey League D. All of the above organizations conduct steroid testing. As a result of the presence of anabolic steroids in male users, A. Ironically, as a result of anabolic steroid use increasing testosterone levels, A.
Gynecomastia refers to A. Gynecomastia is to breast as priapism is to A. Anabolic steroids produce all of the following effects except A. HCG is sometimes used as an attempt A. For most athletes, HCG makes matters worse rather than better because A. HCG only works for women D. Adverse effects of HCG include A. The most frequently reported side effects of anabolic steroids among women, according to one study, are A.
Which of the following effects of anabolic steroids on women is NOT irreversible? One of the documented health hazards from chronic use of anabolic steroids is the development of A. A potentially fatal result of taking anabolic steroids which is reversible once the anabolic steroids are stopped is A. According to the text, which of the following are symptoms of "roid rage"? According to the text, a study on anabolic steroid use and psychological problems found that A. One of the adverse effects of anabolic steroids among adolescent males is A.
Overall body growth is stunted in steroid-abusing adolescents A. In , federal jurisdiction for supervising the sale and possession of anabolic steroids was transferred A. Anabolic steroids are smuggled into the United States from A.
Stacking refers to A. Robert took a combination of two anabolic steroid pills and an injectable form of another anabolic steroid. This practice is known as A. Martin began a routine of injecting anabolic steroids for six weeks. He then would abstain for one week and repeat the process of six weeks on and one week off. Among steroid abusers, shotgunning refers to A. A variation of cycling is A. Jake has been training to run in a marathon. He started taking anabolic steroids in January.
By February, he doubled his initial dose and by March, he tripled it. Three weeks before the marathon, Jake stopped using anabolic drugs.
This procedure is known as A. In a condition called muscle dysmorphia, the steroid abuser A. In an Internet survey, about one in four weight lifters and body builders using steroids have reported that A.
Symptoms of steroid abuse in both men and women include A. Superstitious people, eager to see results, are particularly open to the effects of A. Acromegaly is one of the side effects of A. According to the text, human growth hormone hGH has become very popular due to A. More than forty studies of hGH in healthy athletes, conducted between to reveals that hGH A.
Human growth hormone users are more likely than non-users to develop A. It has been suggested that reports by athletes that hGH helped to increase their athletic performance are probably due to A.
Because hGH has a relatively short half-life, athletes are tested positive only if the drug had been injected in the previous A. Two dietary supplements with presumed performance-enhancing effects are A. Creatine is a n A. The ompound that baseball player Mark McGwire took in was A. Despite the banning of amphetamines in major league baseball, some players have attempted to circumvent the amphetamine ban by A.
An advantage to urine testing is that A. One of the problems with urine testing is that A. Among urinanalysis techniques, A. Of the two major urinalysis methods, A. EIA can be applied to several drugs at once. The only testing procedure adequate to screen for anabolic steroids is A. There is no procedure adequate to screen for anabolic steroids. The advantage of oral fluid testing over urinanalysis is that oral fluid testing A. Ordinary use of ibuprofen can produce false-positive results in urinanalysis tests for A.
Poppy seed rolls can produce false-positive results in urinanalysis tests for A. A failure to detect a certain drug by a drug-testing procedure is a failure of A.
A tendency for a procedure to give a false-positive result for a certain drug is a failure of A. If epitestosterone is artificially elevated, then the likelihood for a procedure to yield a false-negative result for anabolic steroid use A. Epitestosterone is no longer a viable way of circumventing drug tests for anabolic steroids because A.
Currently, taking drugs such as benemid and epitestosterone to mask the presence of other drugs is seldom done because A.
Which of the following drugs or classes of drugs has metabolites that remain the shortest length of time in the body? Chronic, heavy use of marijuana or PCP or fat-soluble injections of anabolic steroids all have a common feature in that they A.
Which individual is least likely to be subject to a randomized drug test? The University of Michigan researchers have found that A. According to the text, which of the following is true about young men? Young men want their bodies to be less muscular and less lean. Young men want their bodies to be more muscular. Young men are not too concerned with their bodies. Young men are less likely than women to be dissatisfied with their bodies. According to the text, which of the following factors contribute to teenage boys using anabolic steroid drugs?